حمایت از کودکان در سازوکارهای قضایی و غیرقضایی و تعقیب کیفری نقض حقوق آنان

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیأت علمی دانشکده حقوق دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، نویسنده مسؤول

2 کارشناس ارشد حقوق بین‌الملل

چکیده

جرایم امروزی به بدترین شکل ممکن کودکان را مورد خشونت و سوء استفاده قرار می‌دهند. تعهد به پایان دادن به مصونیت در برابر جرایم ارتکابی علیه کودکان، به ویژه از طریق اتخاذ اقداماتی توسط محاکم کیفری بین‌المللی به عنوان سازوکارهای قضایی و کمیسیون‌های حقیقت‌یاب به عنوان سازوکارهای غیرقضایی از طریق تمرکز بر تجارب کودکان و درگیر کردن آنها با کار خود، ضروری است. با تأسیس دیوان بین‌المللی کیفری و دادگاه ویژه و کمیسیون حقیقت‌یاب سیرالئون، برای همۀ کسانی که در زمینه‌های حقوق کودک و دادگستری کیفری بین‌المللی فعالیت می‌کنند این فرصت فراهم شد تا به شناسایی جرایم ارتکابی علیه کودکان و پایان دادن به مصونیت و بی‌کیفرمانی کمک کنند. در این پژوهش ما ضمن بیان خشونت‌های ارتکابی علیه کودکان، به بررسی این امر می‌پردازیم که تا چه میزان به حمایت از کودکان از طریق سازوکارهای قضایی از جمله محاکم کیفری بین‌المللی و ترکیبی، و سازوکارهای غیرقضایی از جمله کمیسیون‌های حقیقت‌یاب که برای تعقیب نقض حقوق آنان وجود دارد، توجه شده است. فقدان چنین پژوهش‌هایی در زمینه حقوق کودک علی‌رغم اهمیت آنها کاملاً ملموس است. حمایت از کودکان در سازوکارهای قضایی و غیرقضایی از جمله موضوعات مهمی در حقوق بین‌الملل است که مطالعات علمی در این زمینه لازم و ضروری است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Protection of Children in Judicial and Non Judicial Mechanisms of Criminal Prosecution of Violation of Their Rights

نویسندگان [English]

  • Reza Eslami 1
  • Forouzan Bagheri 2
چکیده [English]

Today’s crimes target children for the worst possible violence and abuse. It is our shared duty to protect of children’ rights.. There is a need to strengthen the commitment to end impunity for crimes committed against children, in particular by adopting concrete measures to encourage international criminal justice as a judicial mechanism and truth-seeking mechanisms to place more emphasis on the experiences of children and to involve children in their work. With the establishment of the International Criminal Court, the ad hoc Tribunals, and the Special Court and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission for Sierra Leone, there is an opportunity for all those working in the areas of children’s rights and international criminal justice to ensure that crimes committed against children are being addressed. to end to impunity for crimes against children we should sure that accountability mechanisms address crimes against children, through investigation of crimes, prosecution of perpetrators and redress for the victims; Develop child-friendly procedures for children’s involvement in truth and justice-seeking mechanisms. The lack of such papers is obvious. Protection of children in judicial and non judicial mechanisms is the one of the important issues at international law that theoretical studies are necessary in this case.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • protection of children’ right
  • prosecution of violations of children’s rights
  • judicial mechanism
  • non judicial mechanism

Books:

Cook, Philip, and Cheryl Heykoop. "Child Participation in Truth and Reconciliation Commission." ch. 5 in S. Parmar, et al. (eds.), Children and Transitional Justice. Human Rights Program at Harvard Law School, 2010.

Ellison, L. The Adversarial Process and the Vulnerable Witness. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Gibbons, Elizabeth, Christian Salazar, and Guenay Sari. Between War and Peace: Young people on the wings of the phoenix. Lamuv Verlag, Goettingen, 2003.

Hamilton, Carolyn. Children and the TRC: Legal Protection of Children in Investigations and Hearings. in UNICEF, NFHR, and UNAMSIL, Human Rights, (eds.), 2011.

S. Parmar, et al. (eds.), Children and Transitional Justice: Truth-telling, accountability and reconciliation. Human Rights Program, Harvard Law School, MA: Cambridge, 2009.

Wessels, Michael. Child Soldiers: From Violence to Protection, Harvard University Press, MA: Cambridge, 2007.

Articles:

Bakker, Christine, "Prosecuting International Crimes against Children: The legal Framework." Innocenti Working Paper No. 2010-13, UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre, Florence, June 2010.

Bakker, Christine. "Truth and Reconciliation Commissions in Guatemala and Peru: The children’s perspective." included in the annex of the outcome document of the expert meeting on transitional justice and children, convened at the UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre, Florence, November 2005.

Beresford, Stuart. "Child Witnesses and the International Criminal Justice System: Does the International Criminal Court Protect the Most Vulnerable?." Journal of International Criminal Justice (2005).

de Greiff, Pablo. "Justice and Reparations." in The Handbook of Reparations. ed. Pablo de Greiff. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.

Mann, Natalie, and Bert Theuermann (comp). "Children and the Truth and Reconciliation Commision for Sierra Leone: Recommendations for policies and procedures for addressing and involving children in the Truth and Reconciliation Commission." Report of the technical meeting convened by United Nations Childrens Fund, National Forum for Human Rights and UNAMSIL Human Rights Section, Free Town,2001.

Treaties and Conventions:

Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, G.A. res. 39/46, [annex, 39U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 51) at 197, U.N. Doc. A/39/51 (1984)], entered into force 26 June 1987.

Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons inTime of War, 75 U.N.T.S. 287, entered into force 21 October 1950.

Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict, G.A. Res. 54/263, annex I, 54 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 49) at 7, U.N. Doc. A/54/49, Vol. III (2000), entered into force 12 February 2002.

Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography, G.A. Res. 54/263, annex II, 54 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 49) at 6, U.N. Doc. A/54/49, Vol. III (2000), entered into force 18 January 2002.

Websites:

http://www.icc-cpi.int/press/pressreleases/420.

http://www.lubangatrial.org/

http://www.childsoldirsglobalreport.org/

http://www.umn.edu/humanrts/edumat/hreduseries/hereandnow/Part-1/from-concept.htm

http://www.specialcourt.org/documents/Statute.