Publication Ethics and Publication Malpractice Statement
The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology is committed to implementing the guidelines and core practices of the Publishing Ethics Committee (COPE).
Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology Publication Ethics and Publication Malpractice Statement is based, in large part, on the guidelines and standards developed by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). The relevant duties and expectations of authors, reviewers, and editors of the journal are set out below.
RESPONSIBILITIES OF AUTHORS
- By submitting a manuscript to Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, the author(s) warrant that the manuscript is their own, original work and that it has neither been published previously nor is currently being considered for publication elsewhere. They also warrant that the sources of any ideas and/or words in the manuscript that are not their own have been properly attributed through appropriate citations and/or quotes.
- An author should not normally publish manuscripts describing essentially the same research in multiple journals or publication venues. Such redundant publication is generally considered to constitute unethical publishing behavior, and if discovered may result in a manuscript under consideration being rejected, or a published article being retracted.
- Authors of manuscripts reporting on original research should present an accurate account of the work performed, accompanied by an objective discussion of its significance. Underlying data should be represented accurately in the manuscript. The manuscript should contain sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the work. The fabrication of results and the making of fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behavior and may be cause for rejection or retraction of a manuscript or published article.
- Where the manuscript reports on commercial software, hardware, or other products, authors must include a declaration at the beginning of the manuscript in which they must either state that no conflict of interest exists or describe the nature of any potential conflict. All sources of financial support for the research should also be disclosed in the manuscript.
- The author(s) of a manuscript agree that if the manuscript is accepted for publication in Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, the published article will be copyrighted using a Creative Commons “Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License 4.0 ” license. This license allows the author(s) to retain the copyright, but also allows others to freely copy, distribute, and display the copyrighted work, and derivative works based upon it, under certain specified conditions.
- Authors are responsible for obtaining written permission to include any images or artwork for which they do not hold copyright in their articles, or to adapt any such images or artwork for inclusion in their articles. The copyright holder must be made explicitly aware that the image(s) or artwork will be made freely available online as part of the article under a Creative Commons “Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License 4.0 ” license.
- The authors’ names should be listed on the article in order of their contribution to the article, and all authors take responsibility for their own contributions. Only those individuals who have made a substantive contribution should be listed as authors; those whose contributions are indirect or marginal (e.g., colleagues or supervisors who have reviewed drafts of the work or provided proofreading assistance, and heads of research institutes/centers/labs) should be named in an “Acknowledgments” section at the end of the article, immediately preceding the Reference List. The corresponding author must ensure that all appropriate co-authors and no inappropriate co-authors are included on the article, and that all listed co-authors have seen and approved the final version of the article and agreed to its publication.
- Where an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in an article of his/hers that has been published in Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, he/she has an obligation to promptly notify the editors and cooperate with them to correct the article or retract it as appropriate.
RESPONSIBILITIES OF REVIEWERS
- Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology’s reviewers perform work for the journal on a volunteer basis. Given that most of these individuals are in full-time employment, their reviewing activities for Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology must, by necessity, not be their top priority. Reviewers are free to decline invitations to review particular manuscripts at their discretion, for example, if their current employment workload and/or other commitments make it prohibitive for them to complete a review in a timely fashion and to do justice to the task in the available timeframe. They should also not accept manuscript review assignments for which they feel unqualified.
- Reviewers who have accepted manuscript assignments are normally expected to submit their reviews within three weeks. They should recuse themselves from the assignment if it becomes apparent to them at any stage that they do not possess the required expertise to perform the review, or that they may have a potential conflict of interest in performing the review (e.g., one resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, institutions, or companies associated with the manuscript).
- Privileged information or ideas obtained by reviewers through the peer review process must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage. Any manuscripts received for review must be treated as confidential documents, and must not be shown to or discussed with others except as authorized by the Editor.
- When conducting their reviews, reviewers are asked to do so as objectively as possible, refraining from engaging in personal criticism of the author(s). They are encouraged to express their views clearly, explaining and justifying all recommendations made. They should always attempt to provide detailed and constructive feedback to assist the author(s) in improving their work, even if the manuscript is, in their opinion, not publishable.
- Reviewers should identify in their reviews relevant published work that has not been cited by the author(s), together with any instances in which proper attribution of sources has not been provided. They should call to the responsible editor’s attention any major resemblances between a manuscript under consideration and other published articles or papers of which they are aware, as well as any concerns they might have in relation to the ethical acceptability of the research reported in the manuscript.
RESPONSIBILITIES OF EDITORS
- The Editor has ultimate responsibility for deciding if a manuscript submitted to journal should be published, and in doing so is guided by the journal’s policies as determined by the editorial board and constrained by such legal requirements as shall then be in force regarding libel, copyright infringement, and plagiarism. The Editor may consult with the Associate Editor and other members of the editorial team, as well as with reviewers, in making publication decisions.
- The editors will evaluate manuscripts for their intellectual content without regard to the race, color, gender, sexual orientation, religious beliefs, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the author(s). They will not disclose any information about a manuscript under consideration to anyone other than the author(s), reviewers and potential reviewers, and in some instances the editorial board members, as appropriate. Additionally, the editors will make every effort to ensure the integrity of the blind review process by not revealing the identity of the author(s) of a manuscript to the reviewers of that manuscript, and vice versa.
- When evaluating a manuscript for publication, in addition to considering standard criteria pertaining to the rigor of the manuscript, the quality of its presentation, and its contribution to humanity’s stock of knowledge, the editors will also seek evidence that ethical harms have been minimized in the conduct of the reported research. They will question whether the benefits outweigh the harms in the particular study’s case.
Conflicts of Interest
The Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) states in its Guidelines on Good Publication Practice (2003) that:
‘Conflicts of interest arise when authors, reviewers, or editors have interests that are not fully apparent and that may influence their judgments on what is published. They have been described as those which, when revealed later, would make a reasonable reader feel misled or deceived.’
the journal defines a conflict of interest as arising from any relationship authors, reviewers or editors have which interferes with, or could reasonably be perceived as interfering with, the full and objective presentation, peer review, editorial decision-making, or publication of a manuscript. Conflicts of interest can be financial or non-financial, professional or personal, and can arise in relation to an organization or an individual. the Journal Commits full disclosure by authors of all conflicts of interest relevant to a submitted manuscript, which is integral to the transparent reporting of research.
Sources of funding for reported research, as well as relevant commercial relationships of authors represent special categories of potential financial conflicts of interest for which specific disclosures are expected by the scientific community and the public.
Conflict of interest: Obligations of Authors
Appropriate disclosures are made in three distinct sections of a manuscript: Acknowledgements, Funding, and Disclosures. The distinctions between these sections are described below.
- All sources of funding for the research reported, including direct and indirect financial support, supply of equipment or materials, in-kind support (e.g., optical design/manufacturing) and other support (such as specialist statistical or writing assistance) should be disclosed in the manuscript. Specific sources of government, foundation, or commercial grants or awards, including identifiers if available, should be listed in a separate Funding section for each author. Other sources of relevant research funding may be listed in an Acknowledgments section.
- Authors should list in the Disclosures section any additional conflicts of interest, financial or non-financial, dealing with the subject matter of the manuscript that editors, reviewers or readers might reasonably expect to know or might otherwise affect the interpretation of the findings.
- If there are no conflicts, the Disclosures section should include the following statement: "The authors declare no conflicts of interest."
- It is the responsibility of the First or Corresponding Author to assure that each Co-author is aware of this Policy and to ensure that all required funding and disclosure information is included for all authors.
- Authors are expected to submit a Correction if a previously unrecognized conflict of interest is discovered after publication.
Conflict of interest: Obligations of Editors
- Editors should disclose to the editor-in-chief any conflicts of interest, financial or non-financial, resulting from direct competitive, collaborative (within the past five years), or other relationships with any of the authors or organizations with interests in the paper, and avoid cases in which such conflicts preclude an objective evaluation. If in doubt, the editor is encouraged to consult with the editor-in-chief regarding the appropriate course of action.
- If a manuscript competes with the research of an editor such that the editor feels s/he could not handle the paper objectively, or whose handling could be perceived as biased, the editor should decline responsibility for that manuscript. If in doubt, the editor is encouraged to consult with the editor-in-chief regarding the appropriate course of action.
- Editors should take all disclosed conflicts of interest into account during the review process.
- Editors should attempt to avoid reviewers who have known conflicts of interest that, in the editors' judgment, could interfere with an unbiased review.
- Article submissions from editors are managed so that no details of the review process, other than those available to all authors, are accessible to the editor.
Conflict of interest: Obligations of Reviewers
- Reviewers should disclose to the editor conflicts of interest, financial or non-financial, resulting from direct competitive, collaborative (within the past five years), or other relationships with any of the authors or organizations with interests in the paper, and avoid cases in which such conflicts preclude an objective evaluation. If in doubt, the reviewer is encouraged to consult with the editor regarding the appropriate course of action.
For more information, please see the following COPE guidelines regarding conflict of interest:
- All contributors consider their journal obligation to adhere to the principles of trustworthiness from the time of receiving the article, reviewing it to submitting a response and printing it.
- The journal's view of all submitted articles is unbiased and evaluates the articles received based on the qualifications of the articles and regardless of race, religion, nationality, gender, status, or organizational affiliation (s).
- The journal is required to make accurate, fair and timely judgments. Equal treatment of all articles received from other ethics of the journal.
- The editor has full authority to appoint the reviewers of each article. In this case, the editor may ask members of the journal's editorial staff or even the authors of the articles themselves.
- If the author of a paper published in the Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology publishes an article in a book series of articles, he must have mentioned the references; The management of the journal will be reserved.
- The Journal Office welcomes the submission of reports of possible errors in journal articles. If confirmed, the revelation errors will reach the magazine's audience as soon as possible.
Articles should be the result of studies, experiences and researches of the author or authors.
- Failure to commit plagiarism in any way; including verbal or near-subject perceptions, similar text quotations, or other people's research results, etc.
- Avoid expressing sensitive, immoral, personal, racial and religious issues and providing false and misleading information and translations of others' works without mentioning the article.
- Failure to submit a single article to several journals or submit articles published or accepted in other journals. If found to be a violation, it will be considered a scientific theft and will be reported to the Ministry of Science.
- Proper reference is required to all sources used either directly or indirectly.
- If the article has previously been rejected in other journals or excluded from the printing process, the author should notify the journal office and explain the possible reasons for rejection or omission from the publication cycle or any corrections made.