Judicial Supervision in the Pretrial Stage; Comparing Iran's Criminal Procedure and International Criminal Court

Document Type : Original Article


1 Ph.D. Graduate Candidate, Faculty of Law, Theology and Political Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran.

2 Professor of Criminal Law and Criminology, Faculty of Law, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.


One of the aspects of the fair trial, along with the principles of “respect for human rights” and “respect for ethics”, is the existence of a proper structure in the process of criminal procedure. Structurally, two models are currently closed and open to criminal proceedings in different countries. In closed packages, an officer in the preliminary investigation stage (prosecution stage) is not in a position to exercise judicial remedies that conflicts with the right of individuals to privacy and their freedom (such as the inspection of homes and interim detention orders), and actions the above is available to an independent and impartial judiciary who has not been involved in conducting investigations and gathering grounds for crime. While in the open pattern, the investigating officer will decide on the above actions. The International Criminal Court model is a closed model because the prosecutor of the court in the above acts is under the supervision of an institution called the “Elementary Branch”, while the Iranian pattern has always been an open pattern. The Code of Criminal Procedure, approved in 2013, is also emphasized on the open model. The realization of fair trial standards as well as the global tendency towards a model of the package requires the creation of a closed model in Iran, and the International Criminal Court model is considered to be an appropriate criminal procedure design for Iran.


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