The legal inadequacy of espionage in the Islamic Penal Code compared to the French Penal Code

Document Type : Original Article


Ph.D.of Criminal Law and Criminology.



Iran's criminal system originates from the Romano-Germanic system, especially the French judicial system, however, it seems that it has not been able to take advantage of the more comprehensive view of the French legislator towards the crime of espionage, the crime of espionage is one of the main high-risk crimes that has been included in the security-oriented criminal policy and is usually The countries face maximum criminalization and repressive punishments. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to examine Iran's criminal policy regarding the crime of espionage in comparison with French criminal policy.
This research is applied in terms of objective with a fundamental approach, and the method of descriptive analytical research and the method of collecting information is library studies.
In the criminalization of espionage, Iran's legislator has looked at this crime with a minimal and traditional view and has not been able to consider various dimensions for the criminalization of espionage, which has modernity and flexibility and is proportional to the level of possible risks and harms of this crime, which is the reason for incomplete criminalizations. Sometimes it has become contradictory and ambiguous towards espionage and it has caused the disagreement of jurists and courts in this field; The new Penal Law bill has not been able to solve the problems raised; While the French legislator, by correcting and updating his legislative attitude regarding espionage, has been able to criminalize various dimensions for it.


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