Restorative Aspects of Plea Bargaining in the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY)

Document Type : Original Article



 International criminal tribunals which have jurisdiction over crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes are facing with many restrictions, including time and budgetary restrictions. Consequently, to speed up case processing, they have recently adopted the methods that were traditionally used by national jurisdictions. Among these methods are guilty plea and plea bargaining. Therefore, with the adoption of the Rule 62-3 of the Procedure and Evidence Rules in December 2001, International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia recognized the institution of plea bargaining.
Since the restorative justice discourse has become the common discourse in the criminal justice, in this article besides defining and identifying the institution of plea bargaining, the effects of restorative justice on this institution will be examined in light of some cases of International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia


الف. منابع فارسی
سبحانی، مهین. «تأثیر حقوق بین‌الملل کیفری و ابتکارات ملی در گذار به عدالت انتقالی». رساله دکترا، تهران: دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، 1392.
سمیعی زنوز، حسین، مجتبی نقدی‌نژاد. «عدالت ترمیمی، شرم و بخشش». فصلنامه علمی ـ ترویجی مطالعات پیشگیری از جرم 16 (1389): 230-197.
شادمان‌فر، محمدرضا. «مبانی و جلوه‌های عدالت ترمیمی در آموزه‌های دینی». رساله دکترا، تهران: دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، 1387.
شریف‌زاده، علی. «پیوند دادن پیشگیری از جرم به عدالت ترمیمی». مجله حقوقی دادگستری 48 و 49 (1383): 306-285.
غلامی، حسین. عدالت ترمیمی. چاپ چهارم. تهران: سمت، 1392.
نیازپور، امیرحسن. توافقی شدن آیین دادرسی کیفری. چاپ اول. تهران: نشر میزان، 1390.
ب. منابع انگلیسی
Bagaric, Mirko, and Kumar Amarasekara. “Feeling Sorry? Tell Someone Who Cares: The Irrelevance of Remorse in Sentencing.” The Harward Jurnal 40 (2001): 364-376.
Cayley, David. The Expanding Prison: The Crisis in Crime and Punishment and the Search for Alternatives, House of Anansi Press, 1998.
Clark, Janine. Natalya. “Plea Bargaining at the ICTY: Guilty Pleas and Reconcilation.” The European Journal of International Law 20 (2009): 415-436
Combs, Nancy. Amoury. “Copping a Plea to Genocide: the Plea Bargaining of International Crimes.” Law Review 151 (2002): 1-158
Combs, Nancy. Amoury. “Procyring Guilty Pleas for a International Crimes: the Limited Influence of Sentencing Discount.” Vanderbilt Law Review 59 (2006): 67-152
Combs, Nancy. Amoury. Guilty Pleas in International Criminal Law. California: Stanford University Press, 2007.
Garbett, Claire. “The Truth and the Trial: Victim Participation, Restorative Justice, and the International Criminal Court.” Contemporary Justice Review 16 (2013):193-213.
Johnstone, Gerry. Restorative, Justice: Ideas, Values, Debates. Cullompton: William Publishing, USA and Canada
Osiel, Mark J. “Legal Remembrance of Administrative Massacre.” University of Pennsylvania Law Review 144 (1995): 463-704
Pati, Roza. “The ICC and the Case of Sudan’s Omar al Bashir: Is Plea Bargaining a Valid Option?” University of California, Davis 15 (2009): 265-326.
Pena, Mariana and Carayon, Gaelle. “Is the ICC Making the Most of Victim Participation?” International Journal of Transtional Justice 7 (2013): 518-535
Petrig, Anna. “Negotiated Justice and the Goals of International Criminal Tribunals.” Chi-Kent J. Int’1& Comp. L (2008): 1-31
Poulson, Barton. “A Third Voice: A Review of Empirical Research on the Psychological Outcomes of Restorative Justice.” Utah Law Review 167 (2003): 167-203
Prosecution v. Blagojevic, Case No. IT-02-60-T, Transcript, Sept. 29, 2003.
Prosecutor v. Biljana Plavsic, Case No. IT-00-39&40/1-S, Sentencing Judgement, Feb. 27, 2003.
Prosecutor v. Cesic, Case No. 95-10/1-S, Transcript, Nov. 27, 2003.
Prosecutor v. Deronjic, Case No. IT-02-61-PT, Transcript, Jan. 28, 2004.
Prosecutor v. Dragan Nikolic, Case No. IT-94-2-S, Sentencing Judgemen Dec. 18, 2003.
Prosecutor v. Dragan Nikolic, Case No. IT-94-2S, Transcript, Nov. 3, 2003.
Prosecutor v. Erdemovic, Joint Separate Opinion of Judge McDonald and Judge Vohrah, Oct. 7, 1997.
Prosecutor v. Krstic, Case No. IT-98-33-A, Tranccript, Nov. 21. 200
Prosecutor v. Momir Nikolic, Case No. IT-02-60/1-S, Sentencing Judgement, Dec. 2, 2003.
Prosecutor v. Momir Nikolic, Case No. IT-02-60/1-S, Transcript, Oct. 27, 2003
Prosecutor v. Obrenovic, Case No. IT-o2-60/2-S, Sentencing Judgemen. Dec. 10, 2003
Scharf, Michael. P. “Trading Justice for Efficiency-Plea Bargaining and International Tribunals.” Journal of International Criminal Justice 2 (2004): 1070-1081.
Statute of International Criminal Court for Yugoslavia,
Tepperman, Jonathan. “Truth and Consequences.” Foreign Affairs March/April (2002): 128-145.
Tudor, Steven. Keith. “Why Should Remorse be a Mitigation Factor in Sentencing?” Crime Law and Philos 2 (2008): 241-257.
United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. “ICTY Ruls of Procedure and Evidence.” e/index.htm.
Yaroshefsky, Ellen. “Cooperation with Federal Prosecutors: Experiences of Truth Telling and Embellishment.” Fordham Law Review 68 (1999): 916-964